Schach in der Wissenschaft

„Dies Spiel ist ein Probierstein des Gehirns.“
(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – Dichter & Naturforscher)

Schach erfreut sich rund um den Globus einer hohen Popularität. Die genaue Zahl kennt niemand. Der Weltschachverband FIDE schätzte auf Basis einer Umfrage von YouGov im Jahr 2012 die Zahl der Schachspieler weltweit auf über 600 Millionen. 2012 stellte Steve Martin, CEO bei M&C Saatchi Sports, fest, dass Schach ein schlafender Gigant des Weltsports ist.

Was macht den Reiz von Schach aus? Schach ist grenzenlos. Am Schachbrett sitzen sich Jung und Alt gegenüber, Frau kämpft gegen Mann, Menschen mit Handicaps spielen mit Menschen ohne Handicap. Man versteht sich unabhängig von Sprache und Nationalität. Schach kann überall gespielt werden, am Schachbrett, am Computer, im Internet, blind (ohne Schachbrett). Mit Schach werden wichtige Eigenschaften verbunden, die heute in unterschiedlichen Arbeits- und Lebensbereichen gefragt sind: logisch denken, planen, Strategien entwickeln, Verantwortung übernehmen, überlegt handeln, beherrscht reagieren, in Stresssituationen die Kontrolle behalten, der unbedingte Wille erfolgreich zu sein, …

Der Wissenschaft dient Schach sowohl als Forschungsgegenstand als auch als Testobjekt zur Überprüfung wissenschaftlicher Thesen und der Leistungsfähigkeit technischer Entwicklungen. Die Geschichte der Computer legt davon beredtes Zeugnis ab. Es werden sogar Weltmeisterschaften der Schachroboter ausgetragen.  Dabei treten die Schachroboter gegeneinander an. Sie berechnen die Züge, führen selbständig den Zug auf dem Schachbrett aus und betätigen die Schachuhr, genau wie es die Menschen machen. Ein beeindruckendes Schauspiel und eine eindrucksvolle Demonstration der heutigen Ingenieurskunst.

Die folgenden Tabellen zeigen eine Übersicht zu Studien und wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen mit Schach im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Die Listen erheben keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit.

Schach in der Wissenschaft

AutorenJahrZeitschriftTitelForschungseinrichtung
Cowley, Michelle2017Lambert Academic PublishingHypothesis Testing: How We Foresee Falsification in Competitive Games
Laercio R. Silva Junior, Fabio H. G. Cesar, Fabio T. Rocha and Carlos E. Thomaz2017EEG and Eye Movement Maps of Chess PlayersCentro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Tom Stafford2017Psychological ScienceFemale chess players outperform expectations when playing menUniversity of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Harry Vuong, Sylwester Liljegren2017An Investigative Study about Application of Supervised Learning for Making Predictions in ChessKTH ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND COMMUNICATION, Sweden
Heather Sheridan; Eyal M. Reingold2017Journal of VisionChess players' eye movements reveal rapid recognition of complex visual patterns: Evidence from a chess-related visual search task.University at Albany, State University of New York, NY, USA; University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Kazem Barzegar, Somayeh Barzegar2017Asian Journal of PsychiatryChess therapy: A new approach to curing panic attackShahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; Islamic Azad University
Giovanni Sala, Alexander P. Burgoyne, Brooke N. Macnamara, David Z. Hambrick, Guillermo J. Campitelli; Gobet2017IntelligenceChecking the “Academic Selection” argument. Chess players outperform non-chess players in cognitive skills related to intelligence: A metaanalysisUniversity of Liverpool, United Kingdom; Edith Cowan University, Australia; Michigan State University, Case Western Reserve University,United States
Andreas G.Franke, Patrik Gränsmark, Alexandra Agricola, Kai Schühle, ThiloRommel, Alexandra Sebastian, Harald E.Balló, Stanislav Gorbulev, Christer Gerdes, Björn Frank, Christian Ruckes, OliverTüscher, Klaus Lieb2017European NeuropsychopharmacologyMethylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trialniversity Medical Center Mainz; Stockholm University; University of Kassel; University of Neubrandenburg; University of Mainz
Sala, G. & Gobet, F.2017Psychological ScienceDoes far transfer exist? Negative evidence from chess, music, and working memory trainingUniversity of Liverpool, UK
Nemanja Vaci, Merim Bilalić2017Behavior Research MethodsChess databases as a research vehicle in psychology: Modeling large dataUniversity of Klagenfurt, Austria; Northumbria University Newcastle, UK
Nahuel Almeira, Ana L. Schaigorodsky, Juan I. Perotti & Orlando V. Billoni2017Scientific ReportsStructure constrained by metadata in networks of chess playersUniversidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Argentina
Ian P. Gent, Christopher Jefferson, Peter Nightingale 2017Journal of Artificial Intelligence ResearchComplexity of n-Queens CompletionUniversity of St Andrews, UK
Cowley, Michelle2016Game Theory & Bargaining Theory eJournalChess Masters’ Hypothesis Testing in Games of Dynamic EquilibriumRoyal Statistical Society
Cowley, Michelle2016Econometric & Statistical Methods – General eJournalChess Masters’ Hypothesis Testing in Games of Dynamic EquilibriumRoyal Statistical Society
Hilario Blasco-Fontecillaa,Marisa Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Belen Poza-Cano, Maria Rosario Perez-Moreno, Victoria de Leon-Martinez, Jose Otero-Perez2016Revista Psiquiatría y Salud MentalEfficacy of chess training for the treatment of ADHD: A prospective, open label studyUniversitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain
Ayperi Dikici Sigirtmac2016academicjournals.orgAn investigation on the effectiveness of chess training on creativity and theory of mind development at early childhoodÇukurova University, Adana, Turkey
Angel Blanch2016Personality and Individual DifferencesExpert performance of men and women: A cross-cultural study in the chess domainUniversity of Lleida, Spain
Parinduri, Rasyad and Lee, Yoong Hon and Tiong, Kung Ming 2016The effects of the three-point rule in individual sports: Evidence from chessNottingham University Business School, the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Mark Wildon2016Discrete MathematicsSearching for knights and spies: A majority/minority gameUniversity of London
QINGYUN WU, FRANK Y¨U, MICHAEL LANDRY2016A COMBINATORIAL GAME THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF CHESS ENDGAMESStanford University, USA
Omid E. David, Nathan S. Netanyahu and Lior Wolf2016ICANN 2016: 25th International Conference on Artificial Neural NetworksDeepChess: End-to-End Deep Neural Network for Automatic Learning in ChessTel Aviv University, Israel; Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; University of Maryland, USA
Ana L. Schaigorodsky, Juan I. Perotti , Orlando V. Billoni2016PLOS ONEA Study of Memory Effects in a Chess DatabaseUniversidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Argentina
Nikolay Izov, Veneta Petkova and Leyla Dimitrova2016Journal of Sports ScienceInnovative Models of Teaching in Training of Adolescents Chess PlayersUniversity of National Sports Academy “Vassil Levski”, Sofia, Bulgaria
Kamilla Gumede, Michael Rosholm2015Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der ArbeitYour Move: The Effect of Chess on Mathematics Test ScoresAarhus University
Giuliano D’Eredità and Mario Ferro2015PNA, 9(3), 245-259GENERALIZATION IN CHESS THINKINGPalermo University
Marios Bikos, Yuta Itoh and Gudrun Klinker, Konstantinos Moustakas2015An Interactive Augmented Reality Chess Game using Bare-Hand Pinch GesturesUniversity of Patras, Universität München
Fariba Fattahi , Ahmad Geshani, Zahra Jafari, Shohreh Jalaie, Mona Salman Mahini2015Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of IranAuditory memory function in expert chess playersUniversity of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Sighart Golf2015Sports Medicine & Doping StudiesBiochemistry and Psychology of Chess and Classical Physical Exercise: Concurring or Conflicting Evidence?Universität Gießen
Dr.Badrie Mohammad Nour ElDaoua, Sara Ibrahim El-Shamieh2015Procedia - Social and Behavioral SciencesThe Effect Of Playing Chess On The Concentration Of ADHD Students In The 2nd CycleLebanese University-Faculty of Education, Fern El Shebek, Beirut, Lebanon
Yanfei Gong, K. Anders Ericsson, Jerad H. Moxley2015PLOS ONERecall of Briefly Presented Chess Positions and Its Relation to Chess Skill East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; Florida State University, USA
Kaiming Li, Jing Jiang, Lihua Qiu, Xun Yang, Xiaoqi Huang, Su Lui & Qiyong Gong2015Scientific DataA multimodal MRI dataset of professional chess playersSichuan University, Chengdu, China
Cowley ,  Michelle2015Cognition in Mathematics, Science, & Technology eJournalHypothesis  falsification in the 2-4-6 numbers test: Introducing imaginary counterpartsRoyal Statistical Society
Jamal Munshi2015Psychology of Innovation eJournalEvaluation of Alternative Continuations of Chess OpeningsSonoma State University, USA
Razieh Khosrorad, Sakineh Soltani Kouhbanani, Abolfazl Rahmani Sani2014International Journal of Educational InvestigationsChess Training for Improving Executive Functions and Mathematics Performance of Students with Mathematics DisordersSabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran
Endre Borosa Vladimir Gurvich, Vladimir Oudalovc Robert Rand2014Rutcor Research ReportOn Nash-solvability of chess-like gamesRutgers University, New Jersey
Fernand Gobet, & Guillermo Campitelli2014Intelligence and chessUniversity of Liverpool; Edith Cowan University
Jürgen Hänggi,Karin Brütsch, Adrian M.Siegel, Lutz Jäncke2014NeuropsychologiaThe architecture of the chess player׳s brainUniversity of Zurich; University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Fotinica Gliga, Petru Iulian Flesner2014Procedia - Social and Behavioral SciencesCognitive Benefits of Chess Training in Novice ChildrenUniversity of Bucharest, Romania
Ana L.Schaigorodsky, Juan I.Perotti, Orlando V.Billoni2014Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its ApplicationsMemory and long-range correlations in chess gamesUniversidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina; Aalto University, Finland
Alexandre Linhares2014Information SciencesThe emergence of choice: Decision-making and strategic thinking through analogiesIndiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States
Anique B.H.de Bruin, Ellen M.Kok, Jimmie Leppink, Gino Camp2014IntelligencePractice, intelligence, and enjoyment in novice chess players: A prospective study at the earliest stage of a chess careerMaastricht University, Open University of the Netherlands
Roland H. Grabner2014IntelligenceThe role of intelligence for performance in the prototypical expertise domain of chessGeorg-August-University of Göttingen
Douglas Williams2014DissertationThe Game Of Chess: A Conduit To Increase Student Academic Achievement In Pinellas County: A Policy Advocacy DocumentNational-Louis University
Robert Gaschler, Johanna Progscha, Kieran Smallbone, Nilam Ram and Merim Bilalic2014frontiers in psychologyPlaying off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performanceUniversität Koblenz-Landau, Humboldt-Universität, Berlin; University of Manchester, Pennsylvania State University, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt,
Jamal Munshi2014Econometrics: Econometric & Statistical Methods - Special Topics eJournalA Method for Comparing Chess OpeningsSonoma State University, USA
Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Renio S.Mendes, Ervin K. Lenzi, Marcelo del Castillo-Mussot, Luı´s A. N. Amaral2013PLOS ONEMove-by-Move Dynamics of the Advantage in Chess Matches Reveals Population-Level Learning of the GameUniversidade Estadual de Maringa, Brazil and Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico
Philippe Chassy2013Psychology ResearchThe Role of Memory Templates in Experts’ Strategic ThinkingLiverpool Hope University, Liverpool, England
John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan, and Daniel T. Willingham2013Psychological Science in the Public InterestImproving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive andDepartment of Psychology, University of Virginia
Papan Mondal, Arnab Ghosh , Sudip Sundar Das2013Physical EducationRelationship between Anxiety and Achievement Motivation of Chess PlayersJadavpur University, Indien
Mark V.Cannice2013The International Journal of Management EducationThe right moves: Creating experiential management learning with chessUniversity of San Francisco
H.Blasco-Fontecilla, M.González, R.García-López, B.Poza, J.Otero, L.Blasco-de la Cruz2013European Psychiatry1505 – Checkmate to adhd: a prospective, open label studyVillalba, Madrid, Spain
Johannes Rennig, Merim Bilalic, Elisabeth Huberle, Hans-Otto Karnath and Marc Himmelbach2013frontiers in neuroscienceThe temporo-parietal junction contributes to global gestalt perception—evidence from studies in chess expertsUniversity of
Birmingham; University of Oxford, UK; University of
Tübingen, Germany
Amy L. Boggan and James C. Bartlett, Daniel C. Krawczyk2012Journal of Experimental PsychologyChess Masters Show a Hallmark of Face Processing With ChessUniversity of Texas at Dallas
Mario Ferro2012CHESS THINKING AND CONFIGURAL CONCEPTSPalermo University
Endre Borosa, Vladimir Gurvich, Svetlana Solovevac Emre Yamangil2012Rutcor Research ReportChess-like games may have no uniform Nash equilibria even in mixed strategiesRutgers University, New Jersey
Ekaterina E. Vasyukova2012Psychology in RussiaTHE NATURE OF CHESS EXPERTISE: KNOWLEDGE OR SEARCH?Lomonosov Moscow State University
Farhad Kazemia , Mozafar Yektayarb , Ali Mohammadi Bolban Abada2012Procedia - Social and Behavioral SciencesInvestigation the impact of chess play on developing meta-cognitive ability and math problem-solving power of students at different levels of educationIslamic Azad University, Iran
Diogo R. Ferreira2012ICGA JournalDETERMINING THE STRENGTH OF CHESS PLAYERS BASED ON ACTUAL PLAYOeiras, Portugal
Mario Ferro2012International Journal for Mathematics in EducationCOULD STUDY AND PLAY OF CHESS IMPROVE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS? REPORT OF AN ITALIAN CASE STUDY.Università di Palermo, Italia
Boggan, A. L., Bartlett, J. C., & Krawczyk, D. C. 2012Journal of Experimental PsychologyChess masters show a hallmark of face processing with chessUniversity of Texas at Dallas
PatrikGränsmark2012Journal of Economic Behavior & OrganizationMasters of our time: Impatience and self-control in high-level chess gamesStockholm University, Sweden
María J. Leone, Agustín Petroni, Diego Fernandez Slezak and Mariano Sigman2012frontiers in neuroscienceThe tell-tale heart: heart rate fluctuations index objective and subjective events during a game of chessUniversity of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Sandeep Kumar Pandey2012International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & TechnologyCHESS GAME AS A TOOL FOR AUTHENTICATION SCHEMEInstitute of Technology and Management Gorakhpur (U.P), India
ANDREW WILLIS MCCOLLOUGH2011DissertationTHE INFLUENCE OF GESTALT GROUPING PRINCIPLES ON ACTIVE VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS: NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCEUniversity of Oregon, USA
PROF. ROBERT BORUCH, BARBARA ROMANO2011DOES PLAYING CHESS IMPROVE MATH LEARNING? PROMISING (AND INEXPENSIVE) RESULTS FROM ITALYUNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
Cem OZTURAN2011Dissertation/ for the degree of Master of ScienceChess Mentor: A Model of Chess Developed with Empirical Modelling ConceptsThe University of Warwick
Steven D. Levitt John A. List Sally E. Sadoff2011American Economic ReviewCHECKMATE: EXPLORING BACKWARD INDUCTION AMONG CHESS PLAYERSUniversity of Chicago
Michael H. Connors, Bruce D. Burns, Guillermo Campitelli2011Cognitive ScienceExpertise in Complex Decision Making: The Role of Search in Chess 70 Years After de GrootUniversity of Sydney; Edith Cowan University
Daniel C.Krawczyk, Amy L.Boggan, M. MichelleMcClelland, James C.Bartlett2011Neuroscience LettersThe neural organization of perception in chess expertsUniversity of Texas at Dallas, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas USA
David C. Barrett, Wade W. Fish2011INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATIONOUR MOVE: USING CHESS TO IMPROVE MATH ACHIEVEMENT FOR STUDENTS WHO RECEIVE SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICESTexas A&M University-Commerce
Nathan Ensmenger 2011Social Studies of ScienceIs chess the drosophila of artificial intelligence? A social history of an algorithmSchool of Information, University of Texas at Austin, USA
Philippe Chassy, Fernand Gobet2011PLOS ONEMeasuring Chess Experts' Single-Use Sequence Knowledge: An Archival Study of Departure from ‘Theoretical’ OpeningsUniversity Tübingen, Germany; Brunel University, University of Sheffield, UK
Mariano Sigman, Pablo Etchemendy, Diego Fernández Slezak and Guillermo A. Cecchi2010frontiers in neuroscienceResponse time distributions in rapid chess: a large-scale decision making experimentUniversity of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina and T.J. Watson Research Center, International Business Machines, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA
Christoph Bühren and Björn Frank2010MAGKS Papers on EconomicsChess players' performance beyond 64 squares: A case study on the limitations of cognitive abilities transferPhilipps-University Marburg
Christer Gerdes, Patrik Gränsmark2010Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der ArbeitStrategic Behavior across Gender: A Comparison of Female and Male Expert Chess PlayersStockholm University, Sweden
Regina L. O'Shea2010 for the degree of. Master of ArtsQueening: Chess and Women in Medieval and Renaissance FranceBrigham Young University - Provo
Sabine Vollstädt-Klein a, ⁎, Oliver Grimm b,c , Peter Kirsch b,e , Merim Bilalić2010Learning and Individual Differences 20 (2010) 517–521Personality of elite male and female chess players and its relation to chess skillUniversity of Heidelberg
Francis Mechner2010JOURNAL oF THE EXPerimental ANALY5IS OF BehaviorChess As a Behavioral model for cognitive skill research: review of blindfold chess by Eliot Hearst and John Knott
Merim Bilalić, Robert Langner, Michael Erb and Wolfgang Grodd2010Journal of Experimental PsychologyMechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess ExpertsTübingen University; RWTH Aachen University Hospital; Research Center Juelich
Anna Dreber, Christer Gerdes, Patrik Gränsmark2010Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der ArbeitBeauty Queens and Battling Knights: Risk Taking and Attractiveness in ChessInstitute for Financial Research (SIFR) ; SOFI, Stockholm University
ELIOT HEARST AND JOHN KNOTT2010JOURNAL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIORCHESS AS A BEHAVIORAL MODEL FOR COGNITIVE SKILL RESEARCH: REVIEW OF BLINDFOLD CHESS
T J Nokes and C D Schunn, M T H Chi,2010ElsevierProblem Solving and Human ExpertiseUniversity of Pittsburgh; Arizona State University, USA
Fernandez, Daniel; Lovett, Marvin G.2009ASBBS Annual Conference: Las VegasSTRATEGIC PLANNING RELATED TO BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND COMPETITIVE COLLEGIATE CHESS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION EXTRA-CURRICULAR IMPLICATIONSUniversity of Texas at Brownsville
Stephan Lewandowsky and Jacqueline L. Thomas2009Journal of Experimental PsychologyExpertise: Acquisition, Limitations, and ControlUniversity of Wuürzburg and University of Dortmund, Germany
Andrea Kiesel, Wilfried Kunde, Carsten Pohl, Michael P. Berner, and Joachim Hoffmann2009Journal of Experimental PsychologyPlaying Chess UnconsciouslyUniversity of Würzburg; University of Dortmund
Fernandez, Daniel und Lovett, Marvin G2009STRATEGIC PLANNING RELATED TO BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND COMPETITIVE COLLEGIATE CHESS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION EXTRA-CURRICULAR IMPLICATIONSUniversity of Texas at Brownsville
Peter G. Brindley, Landon Berger2009Journal of Critical Care  Critical care medicine and medical simulation: 6000 years, and counting, of lessons from the game of chessUniversity of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Merim Bilalic, Kieran Smallbone , Peter McLeod and Fernand Gobet2009Proceedings of the Roayal SocietyWhy are (the best) women so good at chess? Participation rates and gender differences in intellectual domainsUniversity of Oxford, University of Manchester, Brunel University UK
Dores Ferreira, Pedro Palhares2008The Mathematics EnthusiastChess and problem solving involving patterns
Fernand Gobet and Andrew J. Waters2008Computational Modelling of Mental Imagery in Chess: A Sensitivity AnalysisBrunel University, United Kingdom and University of the Health Sciences Bethesda, USA
PROF. DR. GYÖRGY KENDE, PETER HARDICSAY, DR. HABIL. ERZSEBET NOSZKAY, DR. GYÖRGY SERES 2008THE USE OF CHESS IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENTNational Defence University, Budapest; Semmelweis University; Szent István University, Gödöllı, Hungary
Eddie Blass, Ann Knights, Angelita Orbea2008Developing Future Leaders: The contribution of Talent Management.Ashridge Business School UK
Merim Bilalić, Peter McLeod, Fernand Gobet2008Cognitive PsychologyInflexibility of experts—Reality or myth? Quantifying the Einstellung effect in chess mastersOxford University, Brunel University
Brian P. Bloomfield & Theo Vurdubakis2008The Information SocietyIBM's Chess Players: On AI and Its SupplementsLancaster University, UK
Frenk van Harreveld · Eric-Jan Wagenmakers · Han L. J. van der Maas2007Psychological ResearchThe effects of time pressure on chess skill: an investigation into fast and slow processes underlying expert performance
Wei-Li Lu, Yu-Shuen Wang, and Wen-Chieh Lin2007JOURNAL OF LATEX CLASS FILESChess Evolution VisualizationNational Cheng-Kung University, China and National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
Norbert Hagemann, Maike Tietjens & Bernd Strauß2007Expertiseforschung im SportUniversität Kassel; Universität Münster
Giuliano D’Eredità2007PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH WORK IN PROGRESS: CHESS AS A TOOL FOR MATHS EDUCATIONUniversity of Palermo
Merim Bilalic and Peter McLeod, Fernand Gobet2007IntelligenceDoes Chess Need Intelligence? – A Study with Young Chess PlayersOxford University, Brunel University
PROF. DR. GYÖRGY KENDE–DR. GYÖRGY SERES2007NEW CHALLENGES IN THE FIELD OF MILITARY SCIENCESUSE OF CHESS IN MILITARY EDUCATIONNational Defence University Budapest
Fernand Gobet and Guillermo Campitelli2007Developmental PsychologyThe Role of Domain-Specific Practice, Handedness and Starting Age in ChessBrunel University
Roland H.Grabner, Elsbeth Stern, Aljoscha C.Neubauer2007Acta PsychologicaIndividual differences in chess expertise: A psychometric investigationUniversity of Graz, Austria; Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany
Saahoon Hong and William M. Bart2007INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATIONCOGNITIVE EFFECTS OF CHESS INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS AT RISK FOR ACADEMIC FAILUREUniversity Of Minnesota
Ramiz Arabacı2007e-Journal of New World Sciences AcademyAN INVESTIGATION INTO THE OPENINGS USED BY TOP 100 CHESS PLAYERSUniversity of Uludag, Türkiye
Vincent Ferrari, Andre´ Didierjean, and Evelyne Marme`che2006THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYDynamic perception in chessUniversity of Provence, Aix-en-Provence, France
Tiffany S. Jastrzembski and Neil Charness, Catherine Vasyukova2006Psychology and AgingExpertise and Age Effects on Knowledge Activation in ChessFlorida State University, Moscow State University
Ray C. Fair2006Experimental Aging ResearchESTIMATED AGE EFFECTS IN ATHLETIC EVENTS AND CHESSYALE UNIVERSITY, USA
Gobet, F., & Charness2006Chess and games. Cambridge handbook on expertise and expert performanceEXPERTISE IN CHESSBrunel University, Florida State University
Azlan Iqbal and Mashkuri Yaacob2006A Systematic and Discrete View of Aesthetics in ChessUniversiti Tenaga Nasional Selangor, Malaysia
Denise Frick2006Chess as a therapeutic medium in a substance abuse rehabilitation centreUniversity of Pretoria
Vincent Ferrari, André Didierjean, and Evelyne Marmèche2006Journal of Experimental PsychologyDynamic Perception in ChessUniversity of Provence
Christopher F. Chabris, Mark E. Glickman2006Psychological ScienceSex Differences in Intellectual Performance: Analysis of a Large Cohort of Competitive Chess PlayersHarvard University; Boston University
Dr J. M. Unterrainer, C. P. Kaller,
U. Halsband,
B. Rahm
2006British Journal of PsychologyPlanning abilities and chess: A comparison of chess and non-chess players on the Tower of London taskUniversity of Freiburg, Germany;
Christopher F. Chabris and Eliot S. Hearst2005Search, Recognition, and Visualization in Chess: Rebuttal to Gobet’s Critique of Chabris & Hearst (2003)Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts and University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
Fernand Gobet & Guillermo Campitelli2005Educational benefits of chess instruction: A critical reviewUniversity of Nottingham, England and Carnegie Mellon University
Fernand Gobet and Peter J. Jansen2005Training in chess: A scientific approachESRC Centre, University of Nottingham, England and Carnegie Mellon University
Antti Oulasvirtaa, Pertti Saariluoma2005Int. J. Human-Computer StudiesSurviving task interruptions: Investigating the implications of long-term working memory theoryHelsinki Institute for Information Technology HIIT and Department of Computer Science, University of Jyva¨ skyla¨ , Finland
Guillermo Campitelli, Fernand Gobet, Amanda Parker2005The Spanish Journal of PsychologyStructure ans Stimulus familiarity: a Study of Memory in Chess-players with functional magnetic resonance imagingUniversidad Complutense de Madrid
NEIL CHARNESS, MICHAEL TUFFIASH, RALF KRAMPE, EYAL REINGOLD and EKATERINAVASYUKOVA2005APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGYThe Role of Deliberate Practice in Chess ExpertiseMax Planck Institute for Human Development and Education, Berlin, Germany; Florida State University, USA, University of Toronto, Canada, Moscow State University, Russia
HAN L. J. VAN DER MAAS AND ERIC-JAN WAGENMAKERS2005AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGYA psychometric analysis of chess expertiseUniversity of Amsterdam, Netherlands
G.L. Chia, Siew-Hui Ong2005Discrete Applied MathematicsGeneralized knight’s tours on rectangular chessboardsUniversity of Malaya
Merim Bilalić and Peter McLeod, Fernand Gobet2005Journal Thinking & ReasoningExpert and “novice” problem solving strategies in chess: Sixty years of citing de Groot (1946)
Michelle Cowley and Ruth M. J. Byrne2004Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society,Chess Masters’ Hypothesis TestingUniversity of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
Bruce D. Burns2004Psychological ScienceThe Effects of Speed on Skilled Chess PerformanceMichigan State University, USA
Chrilly Donninger and Ulf Lorenz2004The Chess Monster HydraUniversität Paderborn
A.X. Jiang und M. Buro2004Advances in Computer GamesFIRST EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF PROBCUT APPLIED TO CHESSUniversity of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canad
Pertti Saariluoma,Hasse Karlsson,Heikki Lyytinen,Mika Teräs &Fabian Geisler2004European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Visuospatial representations used by chess experts: A preliminary studyUniversity of Helsinki; University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Campitelli, G and Gobet, F2004Journal of the International Computer Games AssociationAdaptive expert decision making: Skilled chess players search more and deeperBrunel University, London
Cowley, Michelle2003Proceedings, 15th International Conference on Robot-Human InteractionThe relevance of intent to human-android strategic interaction and artificial consciousnessUniversity of Southampton
Fernand Gobet2003Forward search, pattern recognition and visualization in expert chess: A reply to Chabris and Hearst (2003)School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, England
WILLIAM M. BART AND MICHAEL ATHERTON2003American Educational Research Association MeetingTHE NEUROSCIENTIFIC BASIS OF CHESS PLAYING: APPLICATIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF TALENT AND EDUCATIONUniversity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
Christopher F. Chabris and Eliot S. Hearst2003Cognitive ScienceVisualization, pattern recognition, and forward search: effects of playing speed and sight of the position on grandmaster chess errorsHarvard University, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
STUART J. MCGREGOR and ANDREW HOWES2002Memory & CognitionThe role of attack and defense semantics in skilled players’ memory for chess positionsCardiff University, Cardiff, Wales
Andrew J. Waters , Fernand Gobet and Gerv Leyden2002British Journal of PsychologyVisuospatial abilities of chess playersGeorgetown University, USA and School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, England
Michael Athertona, Jiancheng Zhuang, William M. Bart, Xiaoping Hu, Sheng He2002Cognitive Brain ResearchA functional MRI study of high-level cognition. I. The game of chessUniversity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
EYAL M. REINGOLD, NEIL CHARNESS and RICHARD S. SCHULTETUS, DAVE M. STAMPE2001Psychonomic Bulletin & ReviewPerceptual automaticity in expert chess players: Parallel encoding of chess relationsUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida
Pertti Saariluoma2001PsicológicaChess and content-oriented psychology of thinkingUniversity of Helsinki, Finland
Paul W. Andrews2001Evolution and Human BehaviorThe psychology of social chess and the evolution of attribution mechanisms: explaining the fundamental attribution errorUniversity of New Mexico, USA
NEIL CHARNESS, EYAL M. REINGOLD, MARC POMPLUN, and DAVE M. STAMPE2001Memory & CognitionThe perceptual aspect of skilled performance in chess: Evidence from eye movementsFlorida State University, University of Toronto
Eyal M. Reingold, Neil Charness, Marc Pomplun, Dave M. Stampe2001Psychological BulletinPerception in chess: Evidence from eye movementsUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida
Dr Peter Dauvergne2000The Case for Chess as a Tool to Develop Our Children’s MindsUniversity of Sydney, Australia
Christopher Fitzgerald Chabris1999DissertationCognitive and Neuropsychological Mechanisms of Expertise: Studies with Chess MastersHarvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Gobet, F.1998Swiss Journal of PsychologyChess Players’ Thinking RevisitedESRC Centre, University of Nottingham, England
Justine Cassell, Henry Jenkins1998Chess for Girls? Feminism and Computer GamesMassachusetts Institute of Technology
Smith, James; Sullivan, Monty1997The Effects of Chess Instruction on Students' Level of Field Dependence/Independence.Louisiana State Universtiy at EuniceNovember
Ian Parberry1997Discrete Applied MathematicsAn efficient algorithm for the Knight’s tour problemUniversity of North Texas, USA
FERNAND GOBET and HERBERT A. SIMON1996Psychonomic Bulletin & ReviewRecall of rapidly presented random chess positions is a function of skill (SKILLED CHESS PLAYERS AND RANDOM POSITIONS)Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
T. W. ROBBINS, E. J. ANDERSON, D. R. BARKER, A. C. BRADLEY, C. FEARNYHOUGH, R. HENSON, and S. R. HUDSON1996Memory & CognitionWorking memory in chessUniversity of Cambridge, Cambridge, England
Fernand Gobet and Herbert A. Simon1996Cognitive PsychologyTemplates in Chess Memory: A Mechanism for Recalling Several BoardsCarnegie Mellon University
FERNAND GOBETand HERBERT A. SIMON1996Memory & CognitionRecall of random and distorted chess positions: Implications for the theory of expertiseCarnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Wolfgang Schneider, Hans Gruber, Andreas Gold1993Journal of Experimental child psychologyChess Expertise and Memory for Chess Positions in Children and AdultsUniversitäten Frankfurt, München, Würzburg
Stuart Margulies Ph. D.1992The Effect of Chess on Reading Scores: District Nine Chess Program Second Year ReportAmerican Chess Foundation
Pertti Saariluoma1992Applied Cognitive PsychologyVisuospatial and articulatory interference in chess players' information intakeUniversity of Helsinki, Department of Psychology
Allan Mazur, Alan Booth and James M. Dabbs Jr.1992Social Psychology QuarterlyTestosterone and Chess CompetitionSyracuse University; Pennsylvania State University; Georgia State University
Charles M.Grinstead, Bruce Hahne, David Van Stone1990Discrete MathematicsOn the queen domination problemSwarthmore College, USA
Roberta Calderwood, Gary A. Klein and Beth W. Crandall 1988The American Journal of Psychology Time Pressure, Skill, and Move Quality in Chess University of Illinois
William G. Chase and Herbert A.Simon1973Cognitive PsychologyPerception in ChessCarnegie-Mellon University