Schach in der Schule

„Das Schachspiel ist nicht bloß eine müßige Unterhaltung. Verschiedene schätzbare und im Laufe des menschlichen Lebens nützliche Eigenschaften des Geistes können dadurch erworben oder gekräftigt werden, so dass sie Gewohnheiten werden, die uns nie im Stich lassen.“
(Benjamin Franklin – amerikanischer Staatsmann, Naturwissenschaftler, Erfinder & Schriftsteller)

Seit dem Pisa-Schock im Jahr 2000 hat das deutsche Bildungssystem viele Veränderungen erfahren. Allen Verantwortlichen ist bewusst, dass die Zukunft des Landes von der Erziehung und Ausbildung der Kinder abhängt. Einfache Lösungen gibt es nicht. Die Bundesländer stehen miteinander im Wettbewerb nach dem erfolgversprechendsten Weg zur besseren Bildung für alle Kinder. Die Studie der Universität Trier mit dem Titel „Fördert Schachunterricht in der Grundschule die geistige Entwicklung der Kinder?“ zeigte, dass die Fähigkeiten in Mathematik, das Sprachverständnis und die Lesekompetenz durch Schachunterricht erheblich gesteigert werden können und dass sich die Sozialkompetenz verbesserte. Untersuchungen in anderen Ländern erbrachten ähnliche Ergebnisse. Inzwischen wird Schach als Unterrichtsfach an unterschiedlichen Schulen in Deutschland gelehrt und die Zahl der Schulen steigt. Die Medien berichten regelmäßig über Schach in der Schule:

„Spielerisch zur Höchstleistung“, Spiegel, 08.11.2006
„Schach matt den schlechten Noten“, Focus online, 17.08.2007
„Schach als Schulfach hilft beim Lesen“, Welt, 08.04.2009
„Schach wird an Schulen immer beliebter“, Frankfurter Neue Presse, 07.02.2014
„Schach als Grundschulfach“, BR Fernsehen, 04.5.2014
„Schach dem Handicap“, Neues Deutschland, 21.05.2016
„Welche Fächer gehören in die Schule?“ Frankfurter Allgemeine, 06.01.2017

Seit 2006 vergibt die Deutsche Schachjugend das Gütesiegel „Deutsche Schachschule“ an Schulen, die sich im besonderen Maße engagieren.
In Sachsen erhielten bisher 4 Schulen das Siegel (Schachverband Sachsen):

Seit 2013 Grundschule Portitz, Leipzig
Seit 2014 Bewegte Grundschule Hermsdorf
Seit 2015 60. Grundschule Leipzig
Seit 2016 Albert-Schweitzer-Schule (Förderschule für Körperbehinderung) Leipzig

Schach in der Schule – Wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse

AutorenJahrZeitschriftTitelForschungseinrichtung
Giovanni Sala & Fernand Gobet2017Learning & BehaviorDoes chess instruction improve mathematical problem-solving ability? Two experimental studies with an active control groupUniversity of Liverpool
Giovanni Sala, Alexander P. Burgoyne, Brooke N. Macnamara, David Z. Hambrick, Guillermo J. Campitelli; Gobet2017IntelligenceChecking the “Academic Selection” argument. Chess players outperform non-chess players in cognitive skills related to intelligence: A metaanalysisUniversity of Liverpool, United Kingdom; Edith Cowan University, Australia; Michigan State University, Case Western Reserve University,United States
Ebenezer Joseph, Veena Easvaradoss, Suneera Abraham, and Melissa A. Chan2017International Journal of Information and Education TechnologyMentoring Children through Chess Training Enhances Cognitive Functions
Giovanni Sala, Alexander P. Burgoyne, Brooke N. Macnamara, David Z. Hambrick, Guillermo J. Campitelli; Gobet2017IntelligenceChecking the “Academic Selection” argument. Chess players outperform non-chess players in cognitive skills related to intelligence: A metaanalysisEdith Cowan University
Giovanni Sala & Fernand Gobet2017Learning & BehaviorDoes chess instruction improve mathematical problem-solving ability? Two experimental studies with an active control groupUniversity of Liverpool
Giovanni Sala, John P. Foley and Fernand Gobet2017Frontiers in PsychologyThe Effects of Chess Instruction on Pupils' Cognitive and Academic Skills: State of the Art and Theoretical ChallengesUniversity of Liverpool, UK
Yuni Rochmawati and Sri Wahyuni2017International Journal of Learning and TeachingAuthentic Assessment in Physics Learning Using Physics Chess Game for Senior High SchoolUniversitas Jember, East Java, Indonesia
Gokhan Gunes , Belma Tugrul2017International Journal of Research in Education and ScienceIs Chess Just a Game, or is it a Mirror that Reflects the Child's Inner World?Hakkari University,
İstanbul Aydın University, Turkey
Michael Rosholm, Mai Bjørnskov Mikkelsen , Kamilla Gumede2017PLoS ONE 1Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scoresAarhus University, Denmark; 2 IZA, Bonn, Germany
Ebenezer Joseph, S. Sundar Manoharan, Veena Easvaradoss, David Chandran2017Cognitive ScienceA Study on the Impact of Chess Training on Creativity of Indian School ChildrenUniversity of Madras; Karunya University; India
Ebenezer Joseph, Veena Easvaradoss, N. Josiah Solomon2016Open Journal of Social SciencesImpact of Chess Training on Academic Performance of Rural Indian School ChildrenUniversity of Madras
Roberto Trinchero, Giovanni Sala2016Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology EducationChess Training and Mathematical ProblemSolving: The Role of Teaching Heuristics in Transfer of LearningUniversity of Turin, ITALY University of Liverpool, UK
John Jerrim, Lindsey Macmillan, John Micklewright, Mary Sawtell and Meg Wiggins2016Education Endowment FoundationChess in Schools Evaluation report and executive summaryUniversity College London
Ayperi Dikici Sigirtmac2016academicjournals.orgAn investigation on the effectiveness of chess training on creativity and theory of mind development at early childhoodÇukurova University, Adana, Turkey
Giovanni Sala, FernandGobet2016Educational Research ReviewDo the benefits of chess instruction transfer to academic and cognitive skills? A meta-analysisUniversity of Liverpool
Mathieu Acher, François Esnault2016Large-scale Analysis of Chess Games with Chess Engines: A Preliminary ReportUniversity of Rennes
Philip E. Ross2016SCIENTIFIC AMERICANThe EXPERT MIND
Douglas Nechio2016CHESS PRACTICE AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN A POST-SECONDARY STUDENT DIAGNOSED WITH ADHD: A SINGLE CASE STUDYUniversity of Saskatchewan
Alexander P. Burgoyne, Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet, Brooke N. Macnamara, Guillermo Campitelli , David Z. Hambrick2016IntelligenceThe relationship between cognitive ability and chess skill: A comprehensive meta-analysisMichigan State University, United States; University of Liverpool, United Kingdom; Case Western Reserve University, United States; Edith Cowan University, Australia
Ayperi Dikici Sigirtmac2016academicjournals.orgAn investigation on the effectiveness of chess training on creativity and theory of mind development at early childhoodÇukurova University, Adana, Turkey
Giovanni Sala, Alessandra Gorini and Gabriella Pravettoni2015SAGE OpenMathematical Problem-Solving Abilities and Chess: An Experimental Study on Young PupilsUniversity of Liverpool; University of Milan
Mensure Aydin2015journal  of educational sciencesExamining the impact of chess instruction for the visual impairment of mathematicsKocaeli University, Turkey
Mohammad Ali Rezvani, Mohammad Reza Fadaee2014Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological SciencesEffect of Chess Training on Math Problem-Solving Ability of Elementary School StudentsShahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
Николаева Александра Георгиевна2014Konferenz "Lomonossow 2014"Формирование компетенций студентов посредством изучения шахматной тактики и стратегииТомский государственной университет, Томск, Россия
William M.Bart2014frontiers in neuroscienceOn the effect of chess training on scholastic achievementUniversity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
Brent C. Laws2014The Phenomenon of Abstract Cognition Among Scholastic Chess Participants: A Case StudyEast Tennessee State University
Fotinica Gliga, Petru Iulian Flesner2013Procedia - Social and Behavioral SciencesCognitive Benefits of Chess Training in Novice ChildrenUniversity of Bucharest, Romania
Roberto Trinchero2013Can chess training improve Pisa scores in mathematics?University of Turin, Italia
С.Г. ПОГОСЯН, Р.В. АГУЗУМЦЯН2013ВЛИЯНИЕ ШАХМАТ НА РАЗВИТИЕ КРЕАТИВНОСТИ И ИНТЕЛЛЕКТА В МЛАДШЕМ ШКОЛЬНОМ ВОЗРАСТЕDepartment of management psychology of the public administration academy, Yerevan, Armenia
CHRISTIAN MASSNY2013MasterarbeitTRAINING BY ERROR: CHESS TRAINING BY INDIVIDUAL ERROR CLASSIFICATIONOtto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg
Alexander Maz-Machado, Noelia Jiménez-Fanjul2012Épsilon - Revista de Educación MatemáticaAjedrez para trabajar patrones en matemáticas en Educación PrimariaUniversidad de Córdoba, Argentina
Ramón Aciego, Lorena García and Moisés Betancort2012Spanish Journal of PsychologyThe benefits of chess for the intellectual and social-emotional enrichment in schoolchildrenUniversidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Mario Ferro2012International Journal for Mathematics in EducationCOULD STUDY AND PLAY OF CHESS IMPROVE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS? REPORT OF AN ITALIAN CASE STUDY.Università di Palermo, Italia
European Parliament2012Declaration of the European Parliament of 15 March 2012Introduction of the programme ‘Chess in School’ in the educational systems of the European UnionEuropean Parliament
Tobias C. Stubbe (presenting), Anke Walzebug2012Chess as a School Subject. First Results from a Longitudinal Study in GermanyInstitute for School Development Research Dortmund
Christoph Sonnenberg2011Schema-Generalisierung beim analogen ProblemlösenOtto-Friedrich-Universitat Bamberg
Julio González-Díaz, Ignacio Palacios-Huerta2011Cognitive Performance and EmotionsUniversidad de Santiago de Compostela; London School of Economics and Ikerbasque.
Береза Иван Богданович2011in Schul-AG entstandenВлияние шахмат на развитие способностей детейХанты-Мансийский автономный округ-Югра, город Радужный, Россия
Rafael Hecker2011BachelorarbeitDas Potenzial des Schachspiels - Eine Betrachtung von Werten und Methoden des Schachunterrichts für die SchulsozialarbeitHochschule Landshut
PROF. ROBERT BORUCH, BARBARA ROMANO2011DOES PLAYING CHESS IMPROVE MATH LEARNING? PROMISING (AND INEXPENSIVE) RESULTS FROM ITALYUNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
Valentine Demetz2010LaureatsarbeitSEI SCHLAU, SPIEL SCHACHFREIE UNIVERSITÄT BOZEN, Italien
П.В. Скачков2010Педагогические инновации в современном шахматном образовании
2009Educational Benefits of Chess - Brief Review of Academy LiteratureAMERICA’S FOUNDATION FOR CHESS RESEARCH STUDY
2009Berkeley Chess School First MovesBerkeley Policy Associates, Oakland, California
Dr. Joseph DuCette2009An Evaluation of the Chess Challenge Program of ASAP/After School Activities PartnershipsTemple University, USA
2009Chess as an Educational Tool in Classrooms and Schools
Mikhail Korenman, Tamara Korenman, Elena Lyutykh2009International Journal of Multicultural EducationCheckmate: A Chess Program for African-American Male AdolescentsSt. Xavier University, USA; Northern Illinois University
Markus Scholz, Harald Niesch, Olaf Steffen,…2008INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATIONIMPACT OF CHESS TRAINING ON MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE AND CONCENTRATION ABILITY OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIESUniversity of Leipzig and University of Applied Sciences of Esslingen, Germany
Ljubisa Jankovic2008DiplomarbeitSpielen lernen – spielend lernen: Schach dem SchulverleiderPädagogische Hochschule Luzern, Schweiz
А.Я. Габбазова2008Интеллектуальное развитие детей младшего школьного возраста в процессе обучения шахматной игреУльяновский государственный технический университет, Ульяновск, Россия
Markus Scholz2008INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATIONIMPACT OF CHESS TRAINING ON MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE AND CONCENTRATION ABILITY OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIESUniversity of Leipzig
А.Я. Габбазова2007Учимся играть в шахматы – развиваем интеллектУльяновский государственный технический университет, Ульяновск, Россия
Prof. Dr. Sigrun-Heide Filipp, Dipl.-Psych. Holger Spieles2007EvaluationsstudieFördert Schachunterricht in der Grundschule die geistige Entwicklung der Kinder?Universität Trier
Merim Bilalic and Peter McLeod, Fernand Gobet2007IntelligenceDoes Chess Need Intelligence? – A Study with Young Chess PlayersOxford University and Brunel University, England
Campitelli, G., & Gobet, F.2007Learning and Individual DifferencesThe Role of Practice in Chess: A Longitudinal StudyBrunel University
Fernand Gobet and Guillermo Campitelli2007Developmental PsychologyThe Role of Domain-Specific Practice, Handedness and Starting Age in ChessBrunel University
Roland H. Grabner, Elsbeth Stern , Aljoscha C. Neubauer2006Acta PsychologicaIndividual diVerences in chess expertise: A psychometric investigationUniversity of Graz and Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin
Kim Yap2006CHESS FOR SUCCESS EVALUATION, Final ReportOffice of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Program, U.S. Department of Justice from the Northwest Regional
Educational Laboratory
Pedro Hernández-Hernández, Heriberto Rodriguez-Mateo2006Success in Chess Mediated by Cognitive-Affective MoldsUniversity of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Educational Department of Canary Government
Helen Link Egger and Adrian Angold2006Journal of Child Psychology and PsychiatryCommon emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: presentation, nosology, and epidemiologyDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Duke University, USA
Luca Barzanti e Stefania Fabbri2006Gli scacchi come strumento per la didattica della matematicaUniversity of Palermo, Italy
Dod Forrest, Dr Iain Davidson, Janet Shucksmith, Tony Glendinning2005CHESS DEVELOPMENT IN ABERDEEN’S PRIMARY SCHOOLS: A STUDY OF LITERACY AND SOCIAL CAPITALUniversity of Aberdeen, Scotland
Fernand Gobet & Guillermo Campitelli2005 book: Chess and Education: Selected essays from the Koltanowski conferenceEducational benefits of chess instruction: A critical reviewUniversity of Nottingham, England and Carnegie Mellon University
Eyal M. Reingold and Neil Charness2005Perception in chess: Evidence from eye movementsUniversity of Toronto; Florida State University
SAM GANZFRIED2004A SIMPLE ALGORITHM FOR KNIGHT’S TOURSOREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Pertti Saariluoma,Hasse Karlsson,Heikki Lyytinen,Mika Teräs &Fabian Geisler2004European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Visuospatial representations used by chess experts: A preliminary studyUniversity of Helsinki; University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Stella Vosniadou2002UNESCO publication/ INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF EDUCATIONHow Children learn
Eyal M. Reingold, Neil Charness, Marc Pomplun, Dave M. Stampe2001Psychological scienceVisual span in expert chess players: evidence from eye movementsUniversity of Toronto; Florida State University
Dr Peter Dauvergne2000The Case for Chess as a Tool to Develop Our Children’s MindsUniversity of Sydney
James M. Liptrap1998Chess LifeCHESS AND STANDARD TEST SCORES
Sebastian Thrun1994Learning To Play the Game of ChessUniversity of Bonn
Wolfgang Schneider, Hans Gruber and Andreas Gold, Klaus Opwis1993Journal of Experimental Child PsychologyChess Expertise and Memory for Chess Positions in Children and AdultsUniversity of Würzburg, University of Muenchen, …., Germany
Stuart Margulies1992The Effect of Chess on Reading Scores: District Nine Chess Program Second Year ReportThe American Chess Foundation
Dianne D. Horgan1992Psychological ResearchChildren and chess Expertise: The role of calibrationMemphis State University, USA
Steven Fried1992International Journal of Play TherapyChess: A psychoanalytic tool in the treatment of children
FergusonDeveloping Critical and Creative Thinking Through Chess
Patrick S. McDonaldTextsammlumngThe Benefits of Chess in EducationChess Federation of Canada
Samuel J HuntThe Role of Chess in Academics and Higher Order ThinkingWestern Kentucky University, USA
Roberto TrincheroChess as a cognitive training ground. Six years of trials in primary schools.http://www.europechesspromotion.org/
Aleksandr KitsisBENEFITS of CHESS for ACADEMIC PERFOMANCE and CREATIVE THINKINGwww.vivacityinc.com/chess
CHRISTIAN MASSNYTRANSFER LEARNING AND CHESSOtto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg
MARIUS GHERGUMATHEMATICS ON THE CHESSBOARDUniversity College Dublin